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1. How is the annual flu vaccine prepared? Why do some people still get flu after receiving the flu shot?
2. What are different forms of vaccines made of?
3. How does innate immunity differ from adaptive immunities?
4. Provide an example for active immunity and passive immunity.  How do they differ?
5. What are the possible targets of antiviral drugs?
6. How does DRACO work?
7. What bodily fluids can transmit HIV?
8. How can HIV get transmitted from mother to child?
9. What are the structural components of an HIV virus? What types of cells does HIV attack?
10. The clinical stages of HIV infection are _____. If an infected person doesn’t seek treatment, the first stage lasts ____, the second stage lasts ____, the third stage lasts ____, and the last stage lasts _____.
11. Why an HIV infected person may be tested HIV negative?
12. What are the drawbacks of HAART therapy?


1. Under the protection of HIPPA law, doctors have no right to test patient’s blood for his HIV status without getting patient’s consent, even in the case when there is a needle stick injury during the blood draw of an intoxicated drug addict who doctors highly suspect to be HIV-positive.  Needle stick injuries are not uncommon considering the long working hours of doctors.  It’s common that medical residents work 36 hours straight with no rest in between.  Is this policy fair to the physicians and the patients? Why do you think so?  If you are the unfortunate doctor who had a needle stick injury at work, what can you do to prevent you from contracting HIV? Are there medicines available?  Are they costly?  Where do these medicines target the virus? Please cite at least one source to support your view.

2. Congregate living spaces have become COVID-19 hotspots due to ease of transmission and a lack of options for social distancing or quarantining. In this discussion, you will focus on one such living space of your choice (e.g., day care center, jails, homeless shelters, poultry factories, temporary farm workers, college students living in dorms, …)
-Describe your chosen living space and population.
-What are the impacts on the surrounding communities?
-How are black Americans and other people of color affected in comparison?
-What are some factors that contribute to differential COVID outcomes (infection & survival rates) among different racial groups?
-What should the government do to improve the health outcomes and control the spread of COVID-19?
-Cite at least one reliable resource in MLA format.

3. Easily said than done.  Although we understand the measures that can be taken to stop the spread of deadly viral diseases such as Ebola, health workers often face multiple difficulties when implementing them.  Listen to this NPR podcast (http://archive.kuow.org/post/ebola-ping-pongs-liberia-cases-disappear-jungle), name at least 3 types of difficulties and discuss how these obstacles can be overcome.

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