+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

918 vol 29 no 12 december 2016

Ainsworth, C. (2015). Sex redefined.
Nature, 518, 288–291.

Bennett, C.M., Baird, A.A., Miller, M.B. &
Wolford, G.L. (2011). Neural
correlates of interspecies perspective
taking in the post-mortem atlantic
salmon. Journal of Serendipitous and
Unexpected Results, 1, 1–5.

Biswal, B.B., Mennes, M., Zuo, X.N. et al.
(2010). Toward discovery science of
human brain function. Proceedings of

the National Academy of Sciences,
107(10), 4734–4739.

Brescoll, V. & LaFrance, M. (2004). The
correlates and consequences of
newspaper reports of research on
sex differences. Psychological
Science, 15(8), 515–520.

Carothers, B.J. & Reis, H.T. (2013). Men
and women are from Earth:
Examining the latent structure of
gender. Journal of Personality and

Social Psychology, 104(2), 385.
Cohen J. (1988). Statistical power analysis

for the behavioral sciences. New York:
Routledge Academic.

Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the
body: Gender politics and the
construction of sexuality. New York:
Basic Books.

Fine, C. (2010). Delusions of gender: How
our minds, society, and neurosexism
create difference. New York: Norton.

Fine, C. (2013). Is there neurosexism in
functional neuroimaging
investigations of sex differences?
Neuroethics, 6(2), 369–409.

Fine, C., Jordan-Young, R., Kaiser, A. &
Rippon, G. (2013). Plasticity, plasticity,
plasticity… and the rigid problem of
sex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,
17(11), 550–551.

Gianaros, P.J., Horenstein, J.A., Cohen, S.
et al. (2007). Perigenual anterior

The global gender gap across health,
education, economic opportunity and
politics has closed by only 4 per cent
in the past 10 years, with the
economic gap closing by just 3 per
cent, suggesting it will take another
118 years to close this gap
completely. (World Economic Forum,
Global Gender Gap Report 2015)

Despite continued efforts, the under-representation of women in manykey areas of global power and
influence is evident. This is, of course,
not a new issue. Earlier versions of
gender gaps associated them with
women’s biological, social and intellectual
inferiority (as an 18th-century given) or
with women’s ‘natural’ roles as carers,
mothers, ‘womanly companions of men’
(as in the 19th-century ‘complementarity’
agenda). ‘Blame the brain’ was the mantra
underpinning these essentialist
justifications of the status quo – the
biologically determined differences
between men’s and women’s brains were
viewed as the cause of these imbalances,
and, most significantly, these differences
were seen as ‘hard wired’, fixed and
unchangeable.

A key breakthrough in our knowledge
of the brain in this century, fuelled by the
stunning technological advances in
research, is that brain structure and
function is not fixed and unchangeable,
and not the same irrespective of context
or culture. It is, in fact, exquisitely
plastic, mouldable by experience
throughout life. It is also ‘permeable’,

responding to social attitudes and
expectations, as is shown by brai

  
error: Content is protected !!