****Please submit Steps 4, 5, 6, and 7 separately, before submitting the completed project 1****
In CCA 610: Cloud Services and Technology, you assumed the role of an IT analyst at BallotOnline, a company providing electronic voting solutions worldwide. Your proposal to begin migrating systems to the cloud has been approved.
BallotOnline has now initiated preparations for the cloud deployment. The company decided to start with deeper investigations of crucial technologies enabling cloud computing. You became acquainted with the basics of these technologies in CCA 610.
In this project, you will conduct more in-depth investigation of cloud networking, which makes cloud connectivity on-demand operations possible. You need to have a good understanding of this as you prepare the BallotOnline network for migration to the cloud as well as designing the appropriate network infrastructure in the cloud for BallotOnline.
To do that, you will assume the role of a BallotOnline network engineer. You will explore the network protocols that enable the company and its customers to connect to the cloud, as well as technologies making it possible to create on-demand in-cloud virtual networks into which the cloud resources will be deployed.
You will conduct two lab experiments exploring the TCP/IP protocols and software-defined networking. You will also perform a subnetting task to demonstrate your understanding of TCP/IP network addressing. Your final deliverable will be the technical report describing your findings and explaining the use of these technologies for BallotOnline’s cloud deployment.
Step 1: Review Networking Concepts
In this step, you will establish an understanding of networking concepts and terms. It will help the recipients of your technical report, including BallotOnline’s technical management, to become familiar with networking vocabulary and definitions.
You will start with reviewing basic networking concepts such as local area network (LAN), Ethernet, and packet switching—the technique of splitting transmitted data into smaller portions and transmitting them separately.
Splitting data into packets, transmitting the packets reliably, and reassembling the data is performed by networking software. It is important to know about basic networking concepts since they serve as the underlying technology for cloud computing. This will ultimately prepare you to submit your technical report for this project. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/intro.html)
Networking software follows the popular model of layered design of network protocols, with each layer using the functionality of the layer below it and implementing new functionality to be used by the layer above. The technical report should include the popular internet suite of protocols—TCP/IP. Application protocols such as HTTP or SMTP are implemented in layers above TCP/IP. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current2/html/tcpA.html?highlight=transmission%20control%20protocol)
Other basic networking concepts include Domain Name Service, network firewalls, and Network Address Translation. As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you know that these protocols play an important role in enabling cloud computing.
Step 2: Explore Internet Packet Switching—IP
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the workhorse of today’s internet connectivity. As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you know that today’s cloud computing is built on top of IP. Most communication between systems in the cloud is done using this protocol.
IP employs the technique of packet switching, which breaks the data to be transmitted into smaller parts, called packets or datagrams, that are sent over the network independently. Understanding IP is crucial to designing and maintaining cloud deployments, which are provisioned within virtual IP networks and accessed via global internet. You will review the basic elements of IP protocol and include their brief discussion in your technical report.
Network devices have a network address to allow other devices to connect to it. The network addresses used in IP are called IP addressing. BallotOnline will need IPv4 addressing to be able to provide network addresses to a cloud system and to create a virtual network in the cloud.
Every system on the network must have an IP address. The assignments of IP addresses to the network systems can be done manually or dynamically through a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you know that manually assigning IP addresses is time-consuming and should only be used on a small number of systems where the IP address will not change frequently. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/ipv4.html#dynamic-host-configuration-protocol-dhcp)
Because numeric addresses are not human-friendly, a domain/machine naming convention defines human-readable names for internet hosts. An internet-based service called DNS (Domain Name System) provides translation between the IP addresses and the domain names. In general, people will use the domain names when addressing a system on the internet instead of using its IP address. You will need to explain in the technical report how DNS is used alongside IP addresses.
As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you also know the importance of IP routing, the mechanism used to route the IP packets across the internet from the sender to the recipient. IP routing of IP packets is accomplished by network routers, which determine the next destination for each packet and are able to learn new routes. (http://dtucker.cs.edinboro.edu/IPRouting.htm) (https://www.learncisco.net/courses/icnd-1/lan-connections/packet-delivery-process-at-l3.html)
Step 3: Investigate Internet Transport—TCP
As robust as the IP protocol is, it does not perform the actual transmission of the data. In this step, you will investigate the network protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), responsible for creation, reliability of delivery, and proper assembling of data packets.
In addition to IP, TCP is also widely used on the internet, especially for any network communication where it is essential to confirm receipt of the transmission. Many of the network protocols used to implement cloud computing use both TCP and IP. You will review TCP’s workings and discuss them in your final technical report.
In general, there is no guarantee that a data packet will reach its destination. Packets can get lost or corrupted during transmission, and there are network applications where you need assurance that the packets have reached their destination. To achieve reliability, TCP establishes connections between communicating hosts, using port numbers to refer to applications on these hosts. Then, packets are created, sequenced, transmitted, acknowledged, and retransmitted if missing or containing errors. Finally, at the destination, they are reassembled into the original messages.
To synchronize the flow of packets between sender and receiver, and avoid packet congestion in case of varying speeds, TCP uses sliding windows for packets remaining in processing at a given time, at both the sender and receiver ends. (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/slidingwindows.html#sliding-windows)
Step 4: Review Advantages of IP Subnetting
One of the drawbacks of IPv4 is the maximum number of network devices it can support. IPv4 addressing uses a 32-bit network address. This allows for 232,, or a little over 4 billion devices. However, today there are significantly more devices on the internet. Even though the more robust IPv6 version has been introduced and efforts are under way to assure wide adoption, IPv4 is still widely used.
One method used to more efficiently use the IPv4 network addresses is a technique to optimize the addresses by splitting them into network addresses and host addresses within designated networks. You will need to take advantage of IP address splitting so that you can efficiently use and allocate the IPv4 network addresses that have been assigned to BallotOnline.
For a given large network, rather than addressing all the hosts using the host part of the address, subnetting allows for splitting the network into several smaller ones by borrowing the host part bits and adding them to the network bits. ( http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/ipv4.html#ipv4-subnets ). It supports efficient management of local networks composed of multiple LANs. In this step, you will investigate subnetting conventions and discuss them in your final report in order to lay ground for the use of subnets by BallotOnline.
As the network engineer for BallotOnline, you know that subnetting a network into several smaller and variable-sized networks will be best for the organization’s needs. BallotOnline has been assigned a network address block by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). ( https://www.iana.org/ )
Because BallotOnline has several offices around the world, you will need to subnet this network address to assign just the right number of addresses to each office location based on the number of systems at that office location (the network address assigned by IANA and the number of offices along with their sizes is provided bellow).
Your task is to create the appropriate number of subnets with the right size to optimize the network.
Your technical report should include Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) notation, which allows for specifying a variable-length network as part of the IPv4 address, leaving the rest for addressing hosts within the network. ( https://opensource.com/article/16/12/cidr-network-notation-configuration-linux )
***Network address assigned by IANA and the number of offices along with their sizes***
+++Submission for Project 1: Subnetting+++
The first interim deliverable for Project 1 is for you to learn about subnetting and demonstrate that you know how to do this.
Below, please find a list of 30 subnetting problems. Make sure no two students select the same project. Please select one that you want to do. Please reply to this thread with your selected problem number. As I see them, I will scratch them from the list.
You are to perform subnetting on your given network. The deliverable is for you to provide the following information for each of the subnet identified (there are four of them for each problem):
Range of IP Addresses available
The number of subnets that you will be able to get
The number of hosts that each subnet will be able to have
You will also need to show the calculation on how you get your answers.
1. 22.214.171.124/24 subnetted to 23 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #23
2. 126.96.36.199/24 subnetted to 18 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #18
3. 188.8.131.52/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16
4. 184.108.40.206/24 subnetted to 9 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #9
5. 220.127.116.11/24 subnetted to 13 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #13
6. 18.104.22.168/24 subnetted to 9 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #9
7. 22.214.171.124/24 subnetted to 14 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #14
8. 126.96.36.199/24 subnetted to 21 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #21
9. 188.8.131.52/24 subnetted to 18 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #18
10. 184.108.40.206/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16
11. 220.127.116.11/24 subnetted to 14 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #14
12. 18.104.22.168/24 subnetted to 26 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #26
13. 22.214.171.124/24 subnetted to 14 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #14
14. 126.96.36.199/24 subnetted to 26 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #26
15. 188.8.131.52/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16
16. 184.108.40.206/24 subnetted to 24 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #24
17. 220.127.116.11/24 subnetted to 10 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #10
18. 18.104.22.168/24 subnetted to 29 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #29
19. 22.214.171.124/24 subnetted to 22 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #22
20. 126.96.36.199/24 subnetted to 18 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #18
21. 188.8.131.52/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16
22. 184.108.40.206/24 subnetted to 18 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #18
23. 220.127.116.11/24 subnetted to 22 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #22
24. 18.104.22.168/24 subnetted to 24 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #24
25. 22.214.171.124/24 subnetted to 10 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #10
26. 126.96.36.199/24 subnetted to 12 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #12
27. 188.8.131.52/24 subnetted to 22 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #22
28. 184.108.40.206/24 subnetted to 22 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #22
29. 220.127.116.11/24 subnetted to 16 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #16
30. 18.104.22.168/24 subnetted to 9 subnets and provide information for subnets #1, #4, #5, and #9
+++Submission for Project 1: Lab 1 Report+++ (File CCA 625 Project 1: Analyzing Network Traffic Using Wireshark attached)
Step 5: Capture and Analyze Network Traffic
Another skill that you will need as the network engineer for BallotOnline is being able to capture network traffic. It’s important to analyze network traffic to find and troubleshoot network issues. This method is commonly used to identify a malfunctioning network device or to detect a possible network issue, such as an ongoing network attack. Normally, this process can take hours, days, or even weeks, depending on the size of the network and the specific traffic that you are trying to capture and analyze. In this scenario, you will be provided with a captured network traffic and you will be directed to look for specific network packets.
You will use Wireshark, a popular open-source network traffic capture and analysis tool. To analyze the capture file provided to you, here is an introductory tutorial. (https://www.wireshark.org/) ( https://www.wireshark.org/video/wireshark/introduction-to-wireshark/ )
Follow the steps in the Analyzing Network Traffic Using Wireshark Guide and prepare a lab report with answers and screenshots to support your answers. The lab report will be attached to your final technical report to demonstrate your proficiency in using the tool to do basic network analysis.
Step 6: Explore Networks Inside the Cloud—SDN
Cloud computing defines network resources as needing to be “rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction” (Mell & Grance, 2011), As cloud networks developed, it was clear that further virtualization of network devices such as switches and routers was needed.
This led to what is known as software-defined networking (SDN) technology, enabling programmatic interfaces to control functions of these devices. ( http://ipj.dreamhosters.com/wp-content/uploads/issues/2013/ipj16-1.pdf ). You know that it will be important for management to understand how SDN supports cloud deployments like BallotOnline’s, so it will be a key part of your technical report.
Instead of manually programming network devices to configure a LAN, cloud management systems using SDN can set these devices up to forward packets to particular destinations by “calling” SDN APIs (application programming interfaces – libraries of software routines). This allows for the creation of virtual networks in the cloud by software.
The most popular SDN standard is OpenFlow by the Open Networking Foundation (https://www.opennetworking.org/). OpenFlow switches include SDN controllers, which maintain flow tables to control forwarding of IP datagrams, and they can learn routes as IP packets when particular source and destination addresses arrive.
Mell, P., & Grance, T. (2011). SP 800-145: The NIST definition of cloud computing. Retrieved from https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-145/final
Once you participate in the discussion below, proceed to the next step. There, you will use a network simulator to show how packets are transmitted.
Software-Defined Network Discussion
Discuss what software-defined networking is and what networking challenges it addresses. What is the role of OpenFlow protocol? Describe how BallotOnline could benefit from SDN in its cloud deployment.
Once you have submitted your post, make sure your response advances the conversation. Do not simply agree or disagree with a post, but instead explain the reasons for your opinions and how they relate to your experiences.
Use the discussion to develop awareness, share your thoughts, ask questions, and reflect.
Step 7: Simulate a Network With Mininet
Submission for Project 1: Lab 2 Report
Step 7: Simulate a Network With Mininet
To demonstrate your understanding how network packets are transmitted in the cloud, you will use Mininet, (http://intronetworks.cs.luc.edu/current/html/mininet.html#installing-mininet) a popular open-source network simulator that can be used together with Wireshark. This demonstration will be part of your technical report. Follow the steps in this Simulating a Network Using Mininet and Analyzing Packets Using Wireshark Guide. (https://leocontent.umgc.edu/content/dam/course-content/tgs/cca/cca-625/document/SimulatingaNetworkusingMininetandAnalyzingPacketsusingWireSharkGuide.pdf?ou=535215).
During the lab, you will provision an EC2 instance in AWS using a preconfigured AWS Machine Image (AMI) and use the Mininet simulator in the EC2 instance to create two hosts. You will then use Wireshark to capture the packet exchanges. (https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/?ec2-whats-new.sort-by=item.additionalFields.postDateTime&ec2-whats-new.sort-order=desc) ( https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ec2-best-practices.html )
You will prepare a lab report as per the lab guide and attach it to your final technical report.
In the next step, you will put together your technical report for BallotOnline.
Step 8: Submit Networking in the Cloud Technical Report
As your final submission, you will write a technical report about networking in the cloud. It will be addressed to BallotOnline technical managers to help them understand how these networking technologies will be implemented as BallotOnline migrates to the cloud.
It will include technical review of the topics covered in the project. Follow the Networking in the Cloud Technical Report Template to cover all the topics required ( https://leocontent.umgc.edu/content/dam/course-content/tgs/cca/cca-625/document/CCA625Project1_NetworkingintheCloudTechnicalReportTemplate.docx?ou=535215 ).
Make sure you provide headings to clearly identify sections of your report. The technical review part of the report should be eight to 12 pages. You should also include both Project 1 lab reports (1 and 2), with incorporated feedback from Steps 5 and 7 if any.11/10/2020 TCP/IP Protocol
The TCP/IP Protocol is a dual-layer communication model that facilitates
communication over the internet. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) directs the
packaging, transmission, and reception of data while the Internet Protocol (IP) controls
the address or location where the communication is sent.
Due to its extreme flexibility and scalability, TCP/IP is the main protocol of the internet
and local area networks. It is a layered protocol, which means layers are stacked on top
of each other.
TCP/IP Internet Protocol Suite
Layer 1 – Network Interface Layer
Deals with all physical components of network connectivity between the network and
the IP protocol
Protocols: Ethernet, Token Ring, Frame Relay, ATM
Layer 2 – Internet Layer
Contains all the functionality that manages the movement of data between two
network devices over a routed network
Protocols: IP, IGMP, ICMP, ARP
Layer 3 – Transfer Layer
Manages the flow of traffic between two hosts or devices, ensuring that data arrives at
the application on the host for which it is targeted
Protocols: TCP, UDP
Layer 4 – Application Layer
Acts as the final endpoints at either end of a communication session between two
11/10/2020 TCP/IP Protocol
Protocols: Telnet, FTP, SMTP, DNS, RIP, SNMP
© 2020 University of Maryland Global Campus
All links to external sites were verified at the time of publication. UMGC is not responsible for the validity or
integrity of information located at external sites.11/10/2020 IP Addressing
There are two versions of IP addressing used today, IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 addresses are
the older version but are still used widely in cloud deployments. Most systems on the
internet and the cloud today support both IPv4 and IPv6 addressing.
IPv4 was introduced in the 1970s and became the standard through RFC 791,
published in 1981.
Standards and Internet Protocols
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
This resource provides more detailed information about the standards and
internet protocols of RFC 791:
IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long and are written down in the form of 4 octets (w.x.y.z;
with w, x, y, and z represent a number between 0 and 255). With IPv4 addressing,
conventions exist to address the whole networks, subnets, and individual machines
The link below will provide information about the specific format of the IPv4 header
that is part of the IPv4 packet. This information will be useful as you analyze network
traffic in the labs that are part of this project. Other important information includes the
special addresses used in IPv4, such as the private address range for internal use, the
broadcast address used to send a network-wide broadcast, and the multicast address,
used to send to a specific set of addresses.
11/10/2020 IP Addressing
Subnetting is also an important concept in IP addressing. Subnetting is a method to
subdivide an IP network into smaller “subnets.” In IPv4, subnetting is needed due to the
limited amount of IP addresses available. Subnetting will also improve the efficiency of
the network in terms of managing traffic.
You will also apply your understanding of subnetting when you are asked to
subnet BallotOnline’s IP network.
Services and Protocols of IPv4
A good understanding of IPv4 addressing is critical since many cloud systems use
The following resource will provide an overview of IPv4, including its format and
use. It will include important services and protocols of IPv4, such as:
Network Address Translation
Domain Name System
Address Resolution Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Internet Control Message Protocol
Due to the limitations of IPv4, in the mid-1990s the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) (https://www.ietf.org/) started the development of the next generation of
Internet Protocol that is now known as IPv6. IPv4 now uses 128-bit addresses. The
goal is to eventually phase out IPv4 and use IPv6 a11/10/2020 CCA 625 Project 1: Analyzing Network Traffic Using Wireshark
CCA 625 Project 1: Analyzing Network Traffic
In this lab, you will use the popular open-source packet analyzer Wireshark
(http://www.wireshark.org/) to analyze network traffic captured in a packet capture
file provided to you. You will first get acquainted with basics of the Wireshark user
interface, and then look at the packets in a capture file to understand how network
communications take place.
You will write a lab report to describe your interactions with Wireshark. You will take
screenshots and answer questions as indicated in this lab guide to demonstrate your
understanding of the interface and the network traffic details.
Step 1: Explore the Wireshark Interface
First, download the Wireshark installer
(https://www.wireshark.org/download.html) and install it on your machine. Then,
download the packet capture file CCA625WiresharkCapture.pcapng
(/content/umuc/tgs/cca/cca625/2208/file-downloads.html?ou=535215) . Click on
the file to open it in Wireshark. You will be presented with the Wireshark screen
showing the file content.
Take a screenshot of your open file and include it in your lab report.
The screen is composed of three parts. The top part shows the list of captured packets.
Because network traffic on a busy machine involves lots of packets of various network
protocols, Wireshark allows for two ways of packet filtering. Capture Filters are set up
before capture and limit the body of packets captured. Display Filters, which can be set
up anytime in the filter toolbar on top of the screen, determine which of the captured
packets are shown in the packet list. Packets in the packet list are color-coded
depending on the protocol.
The middle part of the Wireshark interface shows the detail of the packet selected in
the packet list. The details are shown as a series of protocol headers as per the Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, starting from the physical frame and Ethernet
11/10/2020 CCA 625 Project 1: Analyzing Network Traffic Using Wireshark
data layers, through IP and TCP headers, to application layer protocols like HTTP and
TLS (Transport Layer Security – a data encryption protocol). You can expand each
header to see the information contained in it.
The bottom part contains the content of the selected package in hexadecimal and
Explore the Wireshark menus: Capture, Analyze, and Statistics.