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Any topic from Chapters 5-8
 2. APA format, minimum 4 sources
 3. Minimum 1200 words© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
2

Decision
making is the

process of

identifying

opportunities

Decision is a

choice made

from

available

alternatives

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❖ Programmed Decisions

❖Recurring problems

❖Apply rule

❖ Nonprogrammed Decisions

❖Unique situations

❖Poorly defined

❖Unstructured

❖Important consequences

3

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❖ Difference between programmed and

unprogrammed decisions

❖ Certainty – Situation in which all information

is fully available

❖ Risk – Future outcomes associated with an

alternative are subject to chance

❖ Uncertainty – Depends on the amount and

value of information available

4

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5

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❖ Ambiguity – Making decisions in difficult

situations

❖The goals and the problem are unclear

❖ Wicked decisions involve conflict over goals

and have changing circumstances, fuzzy

information, and unclear links

❖There is often no “right” answer

6

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❖ Rational economic assumptions drive

decisions

❖Operates to accomplish established goals,

problem is defined

❖Decision maker strives for information and

certainty, alternatives evaluated

❖Criteria for evaluating alternatives is known;

select alternative with maximum benefit

❖Decision maker is rationale and uses logic

7

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❖ Administrative/descriptive approach

❖How managers really make decisions

❖Recognize human and environmental

limitations

❖ Bounded rationality – People have limits or
boundaries on how rational they can be

❖ Satisficing – Decision makers choose the first
solution that satisfies minimal decision

criteria

8

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❖ Goals are often vague

❖ Rational procedures are not always used

❖ Managers’ sear© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

❖ If organizations don’t successfully change

and innovate, they die

2

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❖ The adoption of a new idea or behavior by

an organization

❖ Change and innovation can come from

outside forces

❖ Managers want to initiate change from the

inside

❖ Disruptive innovation is a goal for global

competition

3

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❖ Change is not easy

❖ Ambidextrous approach: Incorporating
structures and processes that are
appropriate for:

❖Creative impulse and for the systematic
implementation

❖ Managers encourage flexibility and
freedom to innovate

4

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❖ Product change – a change in the
organization’s product or service outputs

❖ Technology change – a change in the
organization’s production process

❖ Three innovation strategies: exploration,
cooperation, and entrepreneurship

5

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6

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❖ Creativity – novel ideas that meet
perceived needs or offer opportunities

❖ Idea incubator – a safe harbor where
employees can develop ideas without

interference from company bureaucracy or

politics

7

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8

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9

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❖ Internal coordination

❖Horizontal linkage model – simultaneously

contribute to new products and

technologies

❖ External coordination

❖ Includes customers and partners, suppliers

❖Open innovation – commercialization of

ideas beyond the organization

10

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11

© 2015© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

❖ All of the other management functions

stem from planning

❖ How do you plan for an undefined future?

❖ No plan is perfect

❖Without plans and goals,

organizations flounder

2

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3

A goal is a desired future state
that the organization attempts to

realize

A plan is a blueprint for goal

achievement and specifies

the necessary resource

allocations, schedules,

tasks, and other actions

PLANNING

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4

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❖ Organizational mission – the organization’s
reason for existence

❖ Strategic goals – official goals, broad
statements describing the organization’s

future

❖ Strategic plans – define the action steps the
company will take

❖ Goals should be aligned using a strategy

map

5

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Source: Holstee Website, copyright 2011

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❖ Direct employees and resources

❖ Guide toward efficient and effective

performance

❖ Includes planning approaches:

❖Management-by-Objectives (MBO)

❖Single-Use Plans

❖Standing Plans

7

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8

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❖ Defined in 1954 by Peter Drucker

❖ Method for defining goals and monitoring

performance

9

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10

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Single-Use Plans

❖Achieve one-time goals

❖Programs and projects

Standing Plans

❖Ongoing plans

❖Policies, rules, procedures

11

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© 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

❖ All organizations wrestle with structural
design and reorganization

The deployment of organizational resources to
achieve strategic goals

❖ Division of labor

❖ Lines of authority

❖ Coordination

❖ Organizing is important because it follows
from strategy

2

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Organizing structure defines:

 The set of formal tasks assigned to

individuals and departments

 Formal reporting relationships

 The design of the systems to ensure effective

coordination

3

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4

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5

❖ Work Specialization is the degree to which

organizational tasks are subdivided into

individual jobs; also called division of labor

❖ Chain of Command is an unbroken line of
authority that links all individuals in the

organization and specifies who reports to
whom

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❖ Authority is vested in organizational

positions, not people

❖ Authority flows down the vertical hierarchy

❖ Authority is accepted by subordinates

6

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❖ Responsibility is the duty to perform the task

or activity as assigned

❖ Accountability is the mechanism through

which authority and responsibility are

aligned

❖ Delegation is the process managers use to

transfer authority and responsibility down

the chain

7

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Line departments perform primary business
tasks

❖ Sales

❖ Production

8

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Staff departments support line departments

❖ Marketing

❖ Labor relations

❖ Research

❖ Accounting

❖ Human Resources

9

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❖ Line authority means that people in

management pos

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