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I need a full formal lab report written according to the professor’s instructions & specifications on the  GRAVIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM AS CaC2O4·H2O.

I will provide the professor’s lab manual with instructions and guidelines for the formal report and additional discussion questions.Chemistry 1121/1223 Lab Report Format

Following is the format for the informal and formal lab reports. Please note the following:

• The report should be typed (12 pt font, Times New Roman, double spaced) on
8 ½ x 11 paper.
• Equations and calculations may be hand written.
• Present all sections in the order given.
• The lab report is about the work you did; therefore, the discussion and

conclusions must be based on results obtained in the lab.
• (Academic Misconduct) Copying, manipulation/fabrication of data, plagiarism,

content similarities etc. will not be tolerated and will be heavily penalized. There
will be no distinction between those who copy and those who let others copy

• Any changes to these guidelines will be announced.
• Important: Make a backup copy of your lab before handing it in.

Format for an Informal Report

1: Title Page
2: Introduction – Purpose and relevant equations (chemical and mathematical)
3: Experimental Method
4: Results
5 : Conclusions
6 : Questions
7 : References

Format for a Formal Report

1 : Title Page

2 : Abstract

3: Introduction – Background and Purpose

4: Materials and Method

5: Results

6: Discussion

7: Conclusion

8: Questions

9: References

Title Page
Your title page should include all of the following:

• Title of the report
• Your name
• Name(s) of your lab partner(s)
• Your instructor’s name
• Course name (including section number)
• Date of the lab and date that the lab is due.
• Location at which the lab took place

The title page should be typed (minimum 12 font). Use the entire page and ensure that
it is readable and interesting. Optional: If you have suitable graphics that can be
incorporated, please do so.


In one paragraph, state the purpose of the lab and the major findings. Your abstract
should be concise, yet complete; it should provide an overview of your scientific
investigation. By reading the abstract, your reader should have a general idea regarding
the nature of the work, the main experimental findings and the relevance of these finding
to the scientific literature. In general, your abstract should be one paragraph and no
more than 250 words; it should stand-alone. Avoid references in the abstract.

When writing the abstract, you should consider the following:

• Why was the study performed?
• What was the purpose of the experiment?
• What basic methods were used?
• What results were obtained?
• What were the major findings?

Hint: People often find it easier to write the abstract last after the entire report is

Introduction – Background and Purpose

The Introduction is presented in paragraph form. The intention of the introduction is to
“introduce” the topic of the paper. For the formal report it should provide a brief overview
of the literature (background) such that the reader can evaluate and understand the
rational forChemistry 1121

Gravimetric Determination of Calcium



1: Complete the following data table:

Volume (mL)

Mass (g)

Volume of unknown Ca2+ solution


mass funnel + solid


Mass of empty funnel and filter paper


Mass of CaC2O4.H2O


2: Calculate the number of moles of CaC2O4.H2O and hence Ca2+

3: Report the concentration of Ca2+ in the original unknown solution in terms of molarity.


The discussion section is presented in paragraph form. Please ensure that your discussion is at least 500 words in length. When writing your discussion you should take into consideration the following:

· This is the most important part of the lab. It connects the purpose and the results and leads the reader to the conclusion drawn.
· Present the interpretation of your findings as clearly as possible. Be sure to provide a summary for each of your major findings.
· Discuss/interpret the results for each part of the lab. Everything was done for a reason, present the logic behind the design of the experiment to your reader.
· Support your statements with numerical figures.
· Do not phrase your sentences as questions in your lab report.
· Do not show calculations in this section, however you should mention the final values calculated in your discussion.
· Possible errors: Be specific to the experiment when stating sources of error; avoid generic statements like measurement error, crude equipment, etc.
· What caused the measurement error?
· If there was a reading error what caused it?
· What could have affected the accuracy of the data recorded?
· Make note of difficulties that occurred in the experiment.
· Your discussion should always consist of more than one paragraph. For example, if your lab consists of three parts, you should write one paragraph for each part, and then another one for the sources of error.
· Compare and contrast the results you have drawn from your experiments with those published within the scientific literature. Include references and citations.

· Discuss the implications of you work and highlight future experiments that may be of interest.

Please include your discussion to the worksheet.

Discussion Questions:

Sodium sulfate, Na2SO4, concentrations can also be determined gravimetrically by precipitation with barium chloride solutions, BaCl2. A 58.30 ml of a sodium sulfate solution is treated with excess barium chloride such that 0.1608 g of barium sulfate is obtained.

· What is the net ionic equation for the reaction?

· How many moles of barium sulfate are obtained?

· How many moles or sodium sulfate were there originally?

· What is the concentration of the original sodium sulfate solution?

2: Suggest an experiment for the determination of the concentration of a silver nitrate, AgNO3, solution. Assume the concentration is approximately 0.1 M and you

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