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1. (20pts) As part of a mission to send a robot to Mars you have been assigned to evaluate the landing plans for the mission. In preparation for this, develop a list of needs and wants for the landing.

Be sure to rate your needs and wants comparatively on a 1-10 scale.

Also be sure to detail why you made the decisions you did.

2. (30pts) Now that your robot has landed on Mars you are responsible for coming up with a set of instructions that will enable it to explore a square area 100 feet long on each side on Mars’s surface.

The robot must be programed ahead of time with a set of instructions that will enable it to navigate whatever terrain it finds itself in upon landing to find any interesting samples it can once it lands. Samples will be less than 1 square meter large. Impassable objects on the surface may be of any size.

The robot can do the following things:

· go forward (one foot at a time)

· go backwards (one foot at a time)

· turn left (ex. from

to

)

· turn right (ex. from to )

· detect if it has collided with an impassible object

· detect if it’s in the same space as an object of interest

· pick up and store object of interest

· remember specific things (“remember all the places you have been” is too broad. “remember you moved forward 2 feet” or “remember the number 42” are specific things)

Come up with a set of instructions for your (1sq foot large) robot to follow so that it can find as many interesting objects as possible in whatever terrain it lands in on Mars.

For example the terrain might look like this:

or this

key: impassible object object of interest

Your instructions should be as flexible as possible to be adaptable to whatever the terrain is upon landing.

In the early 20th century, archeologists had collected a large quantity of inscriptions in an ancient Anatolian language called Luvian. Many of the words in the inscriptions were names of regions, cities or kings. Some of the important names were the following: Regions: Khamatu, Palaa. Cities: Kurkuma, Tuvarnava. Kings: Varpalava, Tarkumuva.
3a. (15pts) The following are the inscriptions that correspond to these names. Your job is to match each inscription with the name that it represents. The process to solve this puzzle is very similar to what archeological linguists do when they discover writings and inscriptions in unknown languages.

 
 
 
 
 
3b. (15pts) Now, use what you have just learned to determine what the Luvian inscription would probably be for each of the following names:

The king Parta:

 

 

 

The king Armura:

 

 

 

The region Tarmu:

 

 

 

The region Tuva:

 

 

 

The region Narva:I399 – Problem solving
Techniques
Week 6

Today
Language

Evaluating Solutions

language shapes thoughts

enables communication

affects how we view a problem

and what tools we can use to solve it

domain specific language

learn it

abandon preconceptions

focus on how is used in text

domain specific language

look for domain specific websites and publications to learn

domain specific language

look at professional/trade organizations

Activity

molistic

Activity
Positive

Negative

Activity
Positive
strungy
struffy

Negative

Activity
Positive
strungy
struffy

Negative
weasy
blitty

Activity
Positive
strungy
struffy
cloovy
frumsy

Negative
weasy
blitty
sloshful

Activity
Positive
strungy
struffy
cloovy
frumsy
danty

Negative
weasy
blitty
sloshful
slatty

Activity
Positive
strungy
struffy
cloovy
frumsy
danty
cluvious
brastic

Negative
weasy
blitty
sloshful
slatty
molistic

Activity

c. May found a dog that was danty but sloshful.

d. frumsy

metaphor

describes one concept in light of a different one

metaphor

alter and generate concepts

metaphor

create common language

metaphor

bridge specialties

language

create shared understanding

language

integrate across boundaries

metaphor

spark new insights

metaphor

modify way problem tackled

metaphor

not all equal

metaphor

highlights particular aspects

metaphor

brain as clockwork

metaphor

brain as computer

metaphor

can bring in new concepts “stretch”

metaphor

can chain together

even more expansive

metaphor

generate new knowledge

broadening existing concept

language

new ideas through conceptual combination

Activity

Nahuatl

Activity

you are singing
I was singing
they are crying

kochih
nikochis
ticho:kas

metaphor too

new ideas through conceptual combination

metaphor too

new ideas through conceptual combination

printing press as olive press

metaphor

frames – collections of metaphors

metaphor

frames – collections of metaphors

involuntary or voluntary trigger

Activity

each member: find area you have a breadth of knowledge in that others in your group don’t
develop a metaphor for explaining one key aspect of it

Activity

ex:

Activity

each member: find area you have a breadth of knowledge in that others in your group don’t
develop a metaphor for explaining one key aspect of it

trading metaphors

find common themes

metaphor

connotations

metaphor

how to judge a metaphor

metaphor

limits of metaphor

metaphor

don’t get trapped

Evaluating Solutions

so, you have a solution

is it any good?

is it the best?

what does that even mean?

lets find out

P a r t 1:

F o r m a l

Fogler & LeBlanc

clearly state problem

needs

wants

assign weights

assign values

compare

reflect

example:
decide on where to eat

Activity

CreatI399 – Problem solving
Techniques
Lecture 7

Today
Midterm

P a r t 1:

W h y

Why we do this
Critical thinking!

Problem solving!

Keys to Mastery

Repetition

Challenge

Define the Problem
don’t jump into trying to solve
read
re read
remain open minded
clarify
break it down
refine/be specific
figure out whys of the problem

P a r t 2:

Q u e s t i o n 1

1. You have 20 coins in a row. Ten are heads up, ten are tails up. The order is random. You also have a robot that can perform 4 different actions:
Move itself one coin’s width to the left or right at a time.
See the heads/tails status of the two coins directly in front of it.
Flip over both of the two coins that it sees.
Remember a number
Can you give the robot a set of instructions that will result in all 20 coins eventually being turned heads up using only the capabilities outlined above? If not, why? If so, what are the instructions?

Understand

Look for relations

Activity revisited

Can we flip successive pairs to leave only heads facing up?

Activity revisited

Either increase heads by 2

Decrease heads by 2

Or number remains unchanged

Simplify

Simplify

Simplify

Simplify

Simplify

Simplify

Simplify

Simplify

Activity revisited

look at 2 coins in front
if left is a tails, flip both
move one step to the right
repeat from 2

Activity revisited

remember the number 1
look at the 2 coins the robot can see
if left is a tails, flip both
move one step to the right
increase the number remembered by one
if only one coin can be seen in front of robot:
If number matches number of coins, Finish
otherwise: take one step to the left
swap all instances of left and right
change number remembered to 1
repeat from 3

Number: 1

Number: 1

Number: 2

Number: 2

Number: 3

Number: 3

Number: 4

Number: 5

Number: 6

Number: 6

Number: 6

Number: 6

Number: 1

Number: 1

Number: 2

Number: 2

Number: 3

Number: 3

Number: 4

Number: 4

Number: 5

Number: 6

Number: 7

Number: 8

finish

testing a solution

clarifications

edge cases

P a r t 3:

Q u e s t i o n 2

move space one to left

move space one to right

move space two to left

move space two to right

slide left facing coin left

slide right facing coin right

jump left facing coin left

jump rigI399 – Problem solving
Techniques
Week 3

Today
How do we learn

Asking questions

Information literacy

Research

LEARNING

P a r t 1:

M o d e l s

Many, many models

broad categories

Behavioral

Constructivist

Behavioral

Knowledge as repertoire of behaviors

“rules for action”

Behavioral

Can express all knowledge as actions or capabilities for actions

Behavioral

Objectivist focus

Behavioral Learning

Transmission of responses

Behavioral Learning

Reinforcement of responses over time

Behavioral Implications

drill focused

stimulus response

Constructivist

knowledge is constructed

Constructivist

mental processes

not directly observable

Constructivist

organize information

transform

Constructivist

frameworks

Constructivist Learning

learning as process of discovery

Constructivist Learning

knowledge cannot be directly transmitted

only facilitated

Constructivist Learning

scaffolding

Constructivist Implications

motivation intrinsic

Constructivist Implications

learning derived from facing limitations of current knowledge

and modifying or abandoning beliefs

Activity

Discuss

P a r t 2:

E x p a n s i o n

Bloom’s Taxonomy

Neuroscience

higher-level functions on Bloom’s taxonomy

greater number of neural connections

more neurological cross-talk

Neuroscience

active learning stimulates multiple areas in brain

promotes memory

Cognitive Science

strong memories

learner lead

Cognitive Science

styles not supported by observation

variety is

Social

learning situated in communities of practice

Social

context is key

Social

learning learner centric

Activity
Word Search

D I S C O V E R A T F L B Y D
A T D T B T E F E R A V E R P
S S N O E A E K M V E T M A F
E N K A L E S N O D L V O R H
N N S I I A R R U I L N S O A
I Y Z X B F P D O O F W E P W
P E Z I Z P E C F M U L W M O
C A V E A C I D Q G T S A E R
M M M V K H W R I S T S A T K
G U Z W C A I J Z D X Q U J T
J Y X A F N B O C S P K L D H
K T L A F N U E U Q G R R C A
H J R Q S E Q I D L Y B Y A H
U M Q P Z L W C F H V Y Z K K
X J P Z X P U G W L C C I H X

Activity

What techniques did you use?

Activity
Word Search

T I A U A I R I Y C M A Z E P
C A N L Z I N Y H G T N K L W
M V S A A M A I O O O N V R A
E C P H M L K E S F A W A W I
B Y U V U A G X N Y X G Y K A
A E H R L N K A I Y U T A I B
N L A A W O K K H T U W K N K
A L E L L E N E Y A U E N U D
N M R A T I J H X N U L A D C
M W S H H I I M O T K I W F T
A O S C H E Y A H A N I O M F
M A E U Y S H T W N P A W I Q
W Y R Z M X B R F K L I J N L
I S H U N K P A L A I Z I I Q
M U N T O K D P S X C Q I H N

Activity
AGLALA along
CHIKALA little
HAU yes
HEYAH no
I399 – Problem solving
Techniques
Lecture 4

Today
Scholarly Research

Math

Scholarly Research

P a r t 1:

B i g g e r Q u e s t I o n s

OneSearch@IU

synthesis

How to search a scholarly database

again, have a developed question

learn the language of the database

keywords and subject terms

isolate key terms

find related terms

background search (Google, Wikipedia, etc.)

potentially good for terms

do an initial search

look at subject terms

combine subject terms with AND

Activity

find subject terms for:

The effects of differing cultural backgrounds on interpretation of on screen computer images

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

cultural differences
cross-cultural studies
cross cultural differences
cultural influences

Activity

Activity

image analysis
visual perception

Activity

computer:
computer software
computers

Activity

computer image:
image processing
image analysis
computer vision

Activity

find resources

The effects of differing cultural backgrounds on interpretation of on screen computer images

Activity

Activity

Activity

Activity

once you have a good source

find similar

look at subject combination

what did it site?

who sited it?

Activity

find resources similar to:

New Thinking in Comparative Education
Marianne A Larson (Ed.)

why bother with scholarly publications?

depth

breadth

evidence

insight

reproducibility

not infallible

more sources

Activity

Comparing Popular and Scholarly Publications

Math

P a r t 1:

M a t h ? ! ?

math is a way of assigning representations to certain concepts

laying out some basic frameworks (axiom)

and seeing what happens from there

math is language

Goals

consistency in reproduction

predictive power

Goals

exploration of what’s possible

P a r t 2:

P r o o f s

Proofs

show what you know

lingo not the most important bit

basics
A proof consists of a series of valid statements that demonstrate the truth of a theorem, such as:
Axioms
Things we (or someone else) have previously proven
Algebraic transformations or Logical manipulations
Constructions

Basic Methods of Proof:
If we want to prove Thing A implies Thing B
Direct Proof:
Assume Thing A is True, show Thing B must be True logically.

Proof by Contradiction
Assume Thing A implies Thing b is False, show this causes a contradiction, such as something is both true and false at the same time or 1 = 2.

Basic Method of Dis-Proof:
Counterexample (show one example where the ‘Theorem’ is False)

Direct Proofs

Start with what you want to prove

Spell out steps to get to desired conclusion

Justifying as you go

Try to focus on how an argument is constructed. I399 – Problem solving
Techniques
Week 2

Today
Algorithms

Inferences

ALGORITHMS

P a r t 1:

D e f i n i t i o n s

Algorithms

An algorithm is a finite set of precise instructions for performing a computation or solving a problem.

Algorithms are your friend
Not the terrifying things that Hollywood sometimes portrays them as

Just a way of clearly defining how to do something

Makes accomplishing tasks easier

Start with the action
State what you want to accomplish (goal)

Determine starting point

Think through each step you would need to take to get from start to goal

Record each step

The action continued
Try going through the steps one-by-one looking for places where you could be more specific or where you end up diverging from your intended result

Test results

Repeat until satisfied with algorithm

Directions to a robot chef
Algorithms are like recipes
You have a series of detailed steps that lead you
from beginning to finished product

think of a set of directions you
could give to a robot chef
It’s very good at doing what
you tell it
Not good at original thinking

P a r t 2:

W a l k t h r o u g h

First Attempt
Have: kitchen, eggs, milk, butter
Goal: scrambled eggs
prepare eggs in bowl
whisk ingredients
heat pan
add ingredients to pan
wait till cooked
put on plate

Refining a Step
heat pan
Set control for empty burner to medium
Place pan on burner
Place 2 teaspoons of
butter in pan
Wait until surface
temperature of pan
is 165 degrees
Fahrenheit

How did I get there?
State what you want to accomplish (i.e. make scrambled eggs)
Determine starting point (have kitchen, ingredients)
Think through each step you need to take to get from start to goal
Record each step (our first pass)
Try going through the steps one by one looking for places where you could be more specific or you end up diverging from your intended result (we started doing this with step 3: heat pan)
Test results
(We haven’t built our robot, yet. We can imagine though.)
Repeat until satisfied with algorithm

P a r t 3:

E x p l o r a t i o n

Expectation
For today:
Write out all steps of your algorithm

Include your initial thoughts and refinements

Group Activity
What if we wanted to…
find the capital of Iceland?
Create at least one algorithm to solve this question

Solution
One example:
Wikipedia
Find device with internet browser
Navigate to Wikipedia
Enter “Iceland” into search bar
Look through the results web page to find where it states Iceland’s capital

A similar problem
How would I send a message to a friend?
One way:
Get a phone
Call friend
Wait for them to pick up
Tell them the message
Other approaches:
text, email, singing telegram

Comparing
Many right solutions, but that doesn’t mean we can’t meaningfully compare them:

Number of actions required
Other costs

Activity: bead sorting
You have a bag containing two colors of beads before you:
Come up with an algorithm for figuring out whiI399 – Problem solving
Techniques
Lecture 1

P a r t 1:

W h y L i b e r a l A r t s ?

Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking

Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think

-Albert Einstein

Critical Thinking

What do we mean by critical

What do we mean by thinking

Combine Multiple Sources

Big Picture

Creativity

Collaboration

Google top 7 skills
Being a good coach
Communicating and listening well
Possessing insights into others (social awareness)
Empathy and support toward colleagues
Critical thinking
Problem solving
Connecting complex ideas

Keys to Mastery

Repetition

Challenge

Broccoli

P a r t 2:

H o w T o S u c c e e d

Two Questions to Ask

How?

Why?

Perseverance

Focus on the process

Write as you go

P a r t 3:

D e f i n i n g a P r o b l e m

Stop

Clear your mind

Don’t jump to trying to solve

Read

Re Read

Remain open minded

Clarify

Break it down

Refine

Figure out whys

Lets take a look

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Don’t jump into trying to solve

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Read

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Re-read

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Remain open minded

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Clarify

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Break it down

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Refine

You’re stuck in traffic, stressed, because you need to get to a restaurant for lunch.

Figure out whys

Define the Problem

I need to get to my next class in Luddy.

don’t jump into trying to solve
read
re read
remain open minded
clarify
break it down
refine/be specific
figure out whys of the problem

Define the Problem

Getting around Bloomington during move in week is a nightmare

Questions?

  
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